On a small forest plot,  a 50+ foot canopy tree may not be possible.  Or like at Luna Peak, part of the forest needs to mimic canopy.  The landscaping objective in food foresting is — well — a forest!  That trees-over-your-head forest feel we get from true canopy.

Modified-canopy uses small trees (see Blooming Canopy), tall shrubs,  and maybe intensively pruned hardy medium-sized trees (say fig and loquat) to set the canopy between 8 – 15ish feet.

The modified-canopy places canopy fruit lower for harvesting (preferably without a ladder) and provides the beneficial effects of shading under-story food production.

Modified-canopy is particularly useful here on the Gulf coast where deep-summer can shut down a traditional garden.